||Chemistry (Compulsory for all XL candidates)
||Atomic Structure and Periodicity
Planck's quantum theory, wave particle duality, uncertainty principle, comparison between Bohr's
model and quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom, electronic configuration of atoms and ions.
Hund's rule and Pauli's exclusion principle.
Periodic table and periodic properties: ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity and
||: Structure and Bonding
Ionic and covalent bonding, MO and VB approaches for diatomic molecules, VSEPR theory and
shape of molecules, hybridization, resonance, dipole moment, structure parameters such as bond
length, bond angle and bond energy, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Ionic solids,
ionic radii and lattice energy (Born-Haber cycle). HSAB principle.
||s, p and d Block Elements
Oxides, halides and hydrides of alkali, alkaline earth metals, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S. General
characteristics of 3d elements. Coordination complexes: valence bond and crystal field theory, color,
geometry, magnetic properties and isomerism.
|| Chemical Equilibria
Osmotic pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point, ionic equilibria in
solution, solubility product, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts, pH, buffer and their applications.
Equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions.
Conductance, Kohlrausch law, cell potentials, EMF, Nernst equation, thermodynamic aspects and
|| Reaction Kinetics
Rate constant, order of reaction, molecularity, activation energy, zero, first and second order kinetics,
catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions. Reversible and irreversible inhibition of enzymes.
Qualitative treatment of state and path functions, First law, reversible and irreversible processes,
internal energy, enthalpy, Kirchoff equation, heat of reaction, Hess's law, heat of formation. Second
law, entropy and free energy. Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, free energy change and spontaneity, Free
energy changes from equilibrium constant.
|| Structure-Reactivity Correlations and Organic Reaction Mechanisms
Acids and bases, electronic and steric effects, Stereochemistry, optical and geometrical isomerism,
tautomerism, conformers and concept of aromaticity. Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1, E2 and
radical reactions, Hoffmann/Saytzeff rules, addition reactions, Markownikoff rule and Kharasch
effect. Elementary hydroboration reactions. Grignard's reagents and their uses. Aromatic
electrophilic substitutions, orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups.
Identification of common functional groups by chemical tests.
|| Chemistry of Biomolecules
Amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids and nucleotides. Peptide sequencing by chemical and
enzymatic proteolytic methods. DNA sequencing by chemical and enzymatic methods.
Carbohydrates (upto hexoses only). Lipids (triglycerides only). Principles of biomolecule purificationIon exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Identification of these biomolecules and BeerLambert's law.
|| Organization of life; Importance of water; Structure and function of biomolecules: Amino acids,
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids; Protein structure, folding / misfolding and
function; Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, Lysozyme, Ribonuclease A, Carboxypeptidase and Chymotrypsin.
||Enzyme kinetics, regulation and inhibition; Vitamins and Coenzymes; Bioenergetics and metabolism;
Generation and utilization of ATP; Metabolic pathways and their regulation: glycolysis, TCA cycle,
pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fatty acid
metabolism; Metabolism of Nitrogen containing compounds: nitrogen fixation, amino acids and
nucleotides. Photosynthesis, Calvin cycle.
||Biochemical separation techniques: ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography,
centrifugation; Characterization of biomolecules by electrophoresis; DNA- protein and protein -
protein interactions; UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy; Mass spectrometry.
||Cell structure and organelles; Biological membranes; Action potential; Transport across membranes;
Membrane assembly and Protein targeting; Signal transduction; Receptor-ligand interaction;
Hormones and neurotransmitters.
||DNA replication, transcription and translation; DNA damage and repair; Biochemical regulation of
gene expression; Recombinant DNA technology and applications: PCR, site directed mutagenesis,
DNA-microarray; Next generation sequencing; Gene silencing and editing.
||Immune system: Innate and adaptive; Cell of the immune system; Active and passive immunity;
Complement system; Antibody structure, function and diversity; B cell and T Cell receptors; B cell
and T cell activation; Major histocompatibilty complex; Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion,
immune-electrophoresis, RIA and ELISA, flow cytometry; monoclonal antibodies and their
|| Plant Systematics
Botanical nomenclature, history of plant taxonomy, diversity and classification of plants, APG system
of plant classification; phylogenetics and cladistics, molecular taxonomy and DNA barcoding;
Centers for plant taxonomy and herbaria in India.
Anatomy of root, stem and leaves, floral organs, embryo and young seedlings, Primary and
secondary meristems, stellar organization, vascular system and their ontogeny, xylem and phloem
structure, secondary growth in plants and wood anatomy, plant cell structure and differences from
|| Plant development; cell and tissue morphogenesis
Life cycle of an angiosperm, development of male and female gametophyte; cell fate determination
and tissue patterning; spacing mechanisms in trichomes and stomata. Embryogenesis, organization
and function of shoot and root apical meristems. Transition to flowering: photoperiodism and
vernalization, ABC model of floral organ patterning, pollen germination, double fertilization, seed
development; Xylem and phloem cell differentiation, photomorphogenesis; phytochrome,
cryptochrome, phototropin. Role of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids on plant
|| Plant physiology and biochemistry
Plant water relations, mechanisms of uptake and transport of water, ions, solutes from soil to plants,
apoplastic and symplastic transport mechanisms. Mechanism of stomatal movements, nitrogen
metabolism, photosynthesis; C3, C4 and CAM cycles, photorespiration, respiration: glycolysis, TCA
cycle and electron transport chain. Plant responses and mechanisms of abiotic stresses including
drought, salinity, freezing and heat stress, metal toxicity; role of abscisic acid in abiotic stresses.
Structure and function of biomolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme
kinetics. Structure and biosynthesis of major plant secondary metabolites (alkaloids, terpenes,
phenylpropanoids, flavonoids). Biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological effects of auxin,
cytokinin, gibberellic acids, brassinosteroid, ethylene, strigolactone, abscisic acid, salicylic and
jasmonic acid. Senescence and programmed cell death.
|| Genetics and genomics
Cell cycle and cell division. Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic
mapping; extra chromosomal inheritance; Introduction to epigenetics; gene silencing- transgene
silencing, post transcriptional gene silencing, miRNA and siRNA; evolution and organization of
eukaryotic genome structure, gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal aberrations
(numerical: euploidy and aneuploidy and structural: deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation),
transposons. Model organisms for functional genetics and genomics; Introduction to transcriptomics,
proteomics and metabolomics.
||Plant Breeding, Genetic Modification, Genome Editing
Principles, methods - selection, hybridization, heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps and molecular
markers, embryo rescue, haploid and doubled haploids, plant tissue culture: micropropagation,
embryo culture and in vitro regeneration, somatic embryogenesis, artificial seed, cryopreservation,
somaclonal variation, somatic cell hybridization, marker-assisted selection, gene transfer methods
viz. direct and vector-mediated, generation of transgenic plants; Introduction to genome editing:
CRISPR/Cas9, Cre-Lox system to generate chimeras; plastid transformation; chemical
|| Economic and applied Botany
A general account of economically and medicinally important plants- cereals, pulses, plants yielding
fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs and narcotics. Economic
importance of algae, fungi, lichen and bacteria. Major Indian cash crops. Effect of industrialization
on agricultural botany such as plastic on fiber economy. Genetically modified crops and its regulation
eg. Bt cotton, Bt brinjal golden rice etc.
|| Plant Pathology
Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of important crops caused by fungi, bacteria,
nematodes and viruses, and their control measures (chemical and biological) mechanism(s) of
pathogenesis, resistance: basal, systemic, induced systemic resistance, gene for gene concept.
Molecular detection of pathogens; plant-microbe interactions: symbionts and mycorrhiza, pathogens
and pests. Signaling pathways in plant defence response; salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)
in plant-pathogen and plant-herbivore interaction, necrosis; host-parasitic plant interaction (such as
|| Ecology and Environment
Ecosystems - types, dynamics, degradation, biogeochemical cycles, ecological succession; food
webs and energy flow through ecosystem; vegetation types of the world, Indian vegetation types and
biogeographical zones, climate and flora endemism; pollution and global climate change, speciation
and extinction, biodiversity and conservation strategies, ecological hotspots, afforestation, habitat
restoration; plant interactions with other organisms; epiphytes, parasites and endophytes.
|| Historical Perspective
Discovery of microbial world; Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of microbiology; Controversy
over spontaneous generation; Role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter and in the
causation of diseases.
||Methods in Microbiology
Pure culture techniques; Principles of microbial nutrition; Enrichment culture techniques for isolation
of microorganisms; antigen and antibody detection methods for microbial diagnosis; Light-, phase
contrast-, fluorescence- and electron-microscopy; PCR, real-time PCR for quantitation of microbes;
Next generation sequencing technologies in microbiology.
|| Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity
Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification; Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds and protozoa;
Viruses and their classification; Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy and phylogeny.
|| Prokaryotic Cells: Structure and Function
Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell membranes and their biosynthesis, mechanisms of solute transport
across membranes, Flagella and Pili, Capsules, Cell inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles;
Bacterial locomotion, including positive and negative chemotaxis.
|| Microbial Growth
Definition of growth; Growth curve; Mathematical expression of exponential growth phase;
Measurement of growth and growth yields; Synchronous growth; Continuous culture; Effect of
environmental factors on growth; Bacterial biofilm and biofouling.
||Control of Micro-organisms
Disinfection and sterilization: principles, methods and assessment of efficacy.
|| Microbial Metabolism
Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers; Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation;
An overview of metabolism; Glycolysis; Pentose-phosphate pathway; Entner-Doudoroff pathway;
Glyoxalate pathway; The citric acid cycle; Fermentation; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration;
Chemolithotrophy; Photosynthesis; Calvin cycle; Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis;
Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids; Regulation of major metabolic
|| Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction
Normal microbiota; Classification of infectious diseases; Reservoirs of infection; Nosocomial
infection; Opportunistic infections; Emerging infectious diseases; Mechanism of microbial
pathogenicity; Nonspecific defense of host; Antigens and antibodies; Humoral and cell mediated
immunity; Vaccines; passive immunization; Immune deficiency; Human diseases caused by viruses,
bacteria, and pathogenic fungi.
General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs; Antibiotics: Classification molecular mechanism of
mode of action and resistance; Antifungal and antiviral drugs.
|| Microbial Genetics
Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of mutants; Ames test for mutagenesis;
Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation, transduction, recombination, plasmids,
transposons; DNA repair; Regulation of gene expression: repression and induction; Operon model;
Bacterial genome with special reference to E.coli; Phage λ and its life cycle; RNA ; mutation in virus
genomes, virus recombination and reassortment; Basic concept of microbial genomics.
|| Microbial Ecology
Microbial interactions; Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles; Soil microorganisms associated with
vascular plants; Bioremediation; Uncultivable microorganisms; basic concept of metagenomics and
|| Animal Diversity
Distribution, systematics and classification of animals, phylogenetic relationships (based on classical
and molecular phylogenetic tools).
Origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution, natural selection, adaptation, speciation.
Basic Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, sex determination and sex-linked
characteristics, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage, recombination and mapping of genes in
eukaryotes, population genetics, genetic disorders, roles of model organisms in understanding
|| Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; replication, transcription and translation, Krebs
cycle, glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, roles of vitamins and minerals.
|| Cell Biology
Basic principles of cellular microscopy, structure of cell, cytoskeletal organization, cellular organelles
and their structure and function, cell cycle, cell division, chromosomes and chromatin structure.
||Gene expression in Eukaryotes
Eukaryotic genome organization and regulation of gene expression, transposable elements.
|| Animal Anatomy and Physiology
Comparative physiology, the respiratory system, Muscular system, circulatory system, digestive
system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, the reproductive system,
the skeletal system.
|| Parasitology and Immunology
Nature of parasite, host-parasite relation, protozoan and helminthic parasites, the immune response,
cellular and humoral immune response.
|| Development Biology
Gametogenesis, Embryonic development, cellular differentiation, organogenesis, metamorphosis,
Model organisms used in developmental biology, genetic and molecular basis of development, stem
The ecosystem, Animal distribution, ecological niche and its contribution to ecological diversity, the
food chain, population dynamics, species diversity, zoogeography, biogeochemical cycles,
conservation biology, ecotoxicology.
|| Animal Behaviour
Type of behaviours, courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning and memory, social
behaviour across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones, evolution of behavior in animals.
|| Food Chemistry and Nutrition
Carbohydrates: structure and functional properties of mono-, oligo-, & poly- saccharides including
starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre, gelatinization and retrogradation of starch.
Proteins: classification and structure of proteins in food, biochemical changes in post mortem and
tenderization of muscles. Lipids: classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and
polymorphism. Pigments: carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin. Food
flavours: terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones and quinines. Enzymes: specificity, simple and
inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and non- enzymatic browning. Nutrition: balanced diet,
essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat soluble
vitamins, role of minerals in nutrition, co-factors, anti-nutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency
diseases. Chemical and biochemical changes: changes occur in foods during different processing.
Characteristics of microorganisms: morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and actinomycetes, spores
and vegetative cells, gram-staining. Microbial growth: growth and death kinetics, serial dilution
technique. Food spoilage: spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish,
meat, egg, cereals and their products. Toxins from microbes: pathogens and non-pathogens
including Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shebelle, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and
Aspergillums genera. Fermented foods and beverages: curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soya-sauce,
sauerkraut, idly, dose, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage.
|| Food Products Technology
Processing principles: thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives
and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture foods. Food
pack aging and storage: packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified
atmosphere storage. Cereal processing and products: milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling
of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals. Oil processing:
expelling, solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation. Fruits and vegetables processing:
extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash,
candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles. Plantation crops processing and
products: tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices. Milk and
milk products processing: pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, ice- cream, cheese
and milk powder. Processing of animal products: drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat;
production of egg powder. Waste utilization: pectin from fruit astes, uses of by-products from rice
milling. Food standards and quality maintenance: FPO, PFA, A-Mark, ISI, HACCP, food plant
sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP).
Mass and energy balance: Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for
Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number. Heat transfer: heat transfer by conduction,
convection, radiation, heat exchangers. Mass transfer: molecular diffusion and Flick's law,
conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films.
Mechanical operations: size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration,
centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid. Thermal operations: thermal sterilization,
evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and
crystallization. Mass transfer operations: psychometric, humidification and dehumidification